Swigert, at right, with the "mailbox" rig improvised to adapt the command Module's square carbon dioxide scrubber cartridges to fit the lunar Module, which took a round cartridge The "mailbox" at Mission Control during the Apollo 13 mission Considerable ingenuity under extreme pressure was required. The developing drama was shown on television. 21 Because electrical power was severely limited, no more live tv broadcasts were made; tv commentators used models and animated footage as illustrations. Low power levels made even voice communications difficult. The lunar Module consumables were intended to sustain two people for a day and a half, not three people for four days. Oxygen was the least critical consumable plan because the lm carried enough to repressurize the lm after each surface eva. Unlike the command/Service module (csm which was powered by fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, the lm was powered by silver-zinc batteries, so electrical power and water (used for equipment cooling as well as drinking) were critical consumables. To keep the lm life-support and communication systems operational until re-entry, the lm was powered down to the lowest levels possible.
B-5 There also was essay concern about "the structural integrity of the service module. . III23 so mission planners were instructed that the sps engine would not be used "except as a last-ditch effort.". . iii-14 For these reasons, Kranz chose the alternative circumlunar option, using the moon's gravity to return the ship to earth. Apollo 13 had left its initial free-return trajectory earlier in the mission, as required for the lunar landing at Fra mauro. Therefore, the first order of business was to re-establish the free-return trajectory with.7-second burn of the dps. The descent engine was used again two hours after pericynthion, the closest approach to the moon pc2 burn to speed the return to earth by 10 hours and move the landing spot from the Indian Ocean to the pacific Ocean. A more aggressive burn could have been performed at PC2 by first jettisoning the service module, returning the crew in about the same amount of time as a direct abort,. . iii-20 but this was deemed unnecessary given the rates at which consumables were being used. The 4-minute, 24-second burn was so accurate that only two more small course corrections were subsequently needed.
The damage to the service module made safe return from a lunar landing impossible, so lead Flight Director Gene Kranz ordered an abort of the mission. The existing abort plans, first drawn up in 1966, were evaluated; the quickest was a direct Abort trajectory, which required using the service module Propulsion System (SPS) engine to achieve a 6,079-foot-per-second (1,853 m/s) delta-. iii-14 Although a successful sps firing at 60 hours ground elapsed time (GET) would land the crew one day earlier (at 118 hours get, or 58 hours later the large delta- v was possible only if the lm were jettisoned first,. . II-1 and since crew survival depended on the lm's presence during the coast back to earth, that option was "out of the question.". . iii-17 An alternative would have been to burn the sps fuel to depletion, then jettison the service module and make a second burn with the lm descent Propulsion System (DPS) engine. It was desired to keep the service module attached for as long as possible because of the thermal protection it afforded the command Module's heat shield. Apollo 13 was close to entering the lunar sphere of gravitational influence (at 61 hours get which was the break-even point between direct and circumlunar aborts, and the latter allowed more time for evaluation and planning before a major rocket burn.
2001: a space Odyssey (novel) - wikipedia
Communications and telemetry to earth were lost for.8 seconds, until the system writing automatically corrected by switching the high-gain S-band antenna, used for translunar communications, from narrow-beam to wide-beam mode. 16 Immediately after the bang, Swigert reported a "problem which lovell repeated and clarified as a "main B bus undervolt a temporary loss of operating voltage on the second of the spacecraft's main electrical circuits. Oxygen tank 2 immediately read quantity zero. About three minutes later, the number 1 and number 3 fuel cells failed. Lovell reported seeing out the window that the craft was venting "a gas of some sort" into space. The number 1 oxygen tank quantity gradually reduced to zero over the next 130 minutes, entirely depleting the sm's oxygen supply. 17 Because the fuel cells generated the command/Service module's electrical power by combining hydrogen and oxygen into water, when oxygen tank 1 ran dry, the remaining fuel cell finally shut down, leaving the craft on the command Module's limited-duration battery power and water.
The crew was forced to shut down the cm completely to save this for re-entry, and to power up the lm to use as a "lifeboat". 18 This situation had been suggested during an earlier training simulation, but had not been considered a likely scenario. 19 Without the lm, the accident would certainly have been fatal. 20 The circumlunar trajectory followed by Apollo 13, drawn to scale; the accident occurred about 5 hours from entry into the moon's sphere of gravitational influence Crew survival and return journey a direct Abort return, depicted in a 1966 planning report. The trajectory shown is at a point much earlier and farther away from the moon than where the Apollo 13 accident happened.
7 11 The engine shutdown was determined to be caused by severe pogo oscillations measured at a strength of 68 g and a frequency of 16 hertz, flexing the thrust frame by 3 inches (76 mm). The vehicle's guidance system shut the engine down in response to sensed thrust chamber pressure fluctuations. Pogo oscillations had been seen on previous Titan rockets, and also on the saturn V during Apollo 6, 12 but on Apollo 13, they were amplified by an unexpected interaction with turbopump cavitation. 13 Later missions implemented anti-pogo modifications that had been under development. These included addition of a helium-gas reservoir to the center engine liquid oxygen line to damp pressure oscillations, an automatic cutoff as a backup, and simplification of the propellant valves of all five second-stage engines. The crew performed the separation and transposition maneuver to dock the command Module Odyssey to the lunar Module (LM) Aquarius, and pulled away from the spent third stage, which ground controllers then sent on a course to impact the moon in range of a seismometer.
They then settled in for the three-day trip to Fra mauro. Accident Mission Operations Control room during Apollo 13's fourth television transmission, on the evening of April 13, 1970. Astronaut Fred haise,., lunar Module pilot, is seen on the screen Approaching 56 hours into the mission, Apollo 13 was approximately 205,000 miles (330,000 km) from Earth en route to the moon. 14 15 Approximately six and a half minutes after the end of a live tv broadcast from the spacecraft, haise was in the process of closing out the lm, while lovell was stowing the tv camera. Houston flight controllers asked Swigert to turn on the hydrogen and oxygen tank stirring fans in the service module, which were designed to destratify the cryogenic contents and increase the accuracy of their quantity readings. Two minutes later, the astronauts heard a "pretty large bang accompanied by fluctuations in electrical power and the firing of the attitude control thrusters. The crew thought that a meteoroid might have struck the lunar Module.
SparkNotes: The Odyssey: books 1516
7 Objective the Apollo 13 mission was to explore the Fra mauro formation, or Fra mauro highlands, named after the 80-kilometer (50 mi) diameter resume Fra mauro crater located within. It is a widespread, hilly selenological area thought to be composed of ejecta from the impact that formed Mare Imbrium. The next Apollo mission, Apollo 14, eventually made a successful flight to Fra mauro. Abort April 14, 1970 utc (April 13, 21:07:53 cst ) Oxygen tank explosion: 03:07:53 utc (55:54:53 Ground Elapsed Time 173,790.5 nmi (321,860 km) from Earth 9 csm power down, lm power up: 05:23 utc (58:10 Ground Elapsed Time) Closest approach to moon April 15, 1970, 00:21:00 utc;. Crew was on board the uss iwo jima 45 minutes later. Mission highlights launch and translunar injection Apollo 13 launches from Kennedy Space center, April 11, 1970 Apollo 13 spacecraft configuration en route to the moon The mission was launched at the planned time, 02:13:00 pm mba est (19:13:00 utc) on April. An anomaly occurred when the second-stage, center (inboard) engine shut down about two minutes early. The four outboard engines and the third-stage engine burned longer to compensate, and the vehicle achieved very close to the planned circular 100 nautical miles (190 km) parking orbit, followed by a normal translunar injection about two hours later.
Thus, lovell's crew, backup for the historic Apollo 11 mission and therefore slated for Apollo 14, was swapped with Shepard's crew 2 and the original crew selection for the mission became: Original crew photo. Left to right: lovell, mattingly, haise Prime crew: Backup crew: Ken Mattingly was originally intended as journey the command Module pilot. Seven days before launch, the backup Lunar Module pilot, Charlie duke, contracted rubella from one of his children. This exposed both the prime and backup crews, who trained together. Mattingly was found to be the only one of the other five who had not had rubella as a child and thus was not immune. Three days before launch, at the insistence of the Flight Surgeon, Swigert was moved to the prime crew. 4 Mattingly never contracted rubella and was assigned after the mission as Command Module pilot to young's crew, which later flew Apollo 16, the fifth mission to land on the moon. Support crew Flight directors Mission insignia the astronauts' mission insignia was sculpted as a medallion depicting Steeds of Apollo by lumen Martin Winter and was struck by the Franklin Mint. 6 Mission parameters Mass : csm odyssey 63,470 pounds (28,790 kg lm aquarius 33,490 pounds (15,190 kg perigee :.3 nautical miles (183.9 km Apogee (parking orbit 100.3 nautical miles (185.8 km Inclination (Earth departure.817; Period :.19 min.
rotation in place during the Apollo program, the prime crew for Apollo 13 would have been the backup crew for. Apollo 10 with Mercury and Gemini veteran. Gordon cooper in command. That crew was composed of deke slayton, nasa's Director of Flight Crew Operations, never intended to rotate cooper and Eisele to another mission, as both were out of favor with nasa management for various reasons (Cooper for his lax attitude towards training, and Eisele for. He assigned them to the backup crew simply because of a lack of flight-qualified manpower in the Astronaut Office at the time the assignment needed to be made. 2 Slayton felt cooper had no more than a very small chance of receiving the Apollo 13 command, if he did an outstanding job with the assignment, which he did not. Despite eisele's issues with management, Slayton always intended to assign him to a future Apollo Applications Program mission rather than a lunar mission, but this program was eventually cut down to only the skylab component. Thus, the original assignment Slayton submitted to his superiors for this flight was: For the first time ever, Slayton's recommendation was rejected by management, who felt that Shepard needed more time to train properly for a lunar flight, as he had only recently benefited from.
Earth on April 17, 1970, six days after launch. The flight passed the far side of the moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and thank 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded. Lovell with, john. "Jack" Swigert as Command Module pilot and, fred. Haise as Lunar Module pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original cm pilot.
M: The Odyssey ( homer, robert
This article is about the shakespeare Apollo mission. For the film based upon it, see. For the lovell-authored book called Apollo 13, see. Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the. Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 14:13. Est (19:13, utc ) from the, kennedy Space center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the. Service module (SM) upon which the, command Module (CM) had depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely.