Bal shoshan essay

Al-Aqsa mosque - wikipedia

This included the building of the fountain of Qasim Pasha (1527 the restoration of the pool of Raranj, and the building of three free-standing domes—the most notable being the dome of the Prophet built in 1538. All construction was ordered by the Ottoman governors of Jerusalem and not the sultans themselves. 29 The sultans did make additions to existing minarets, however. 29 In 1816, the mosque was restored by governor Sulayman Pasha al-Adil after having been in a dilapidated state. 30 Modern era see also: Al-Aqsa Intifada The dome of the mosque in 1982. It was made of aluminum (and looked like silver but replaced with its original lead plating in 1983.

In 1119, it was transformed into the headquarters of the templar Knights. During this period, the mosque underwent some structural changes, including the expansion of its northern porch, and the addition of an apse and a dividing wall. A new cloister and church were also built at the site, along with various other structures. 26 The templars constructed vaulted western and eastern annexes to the building; the western currently serves as the women's mosque and the eastern as the Islamic Museum. 21 After the ayyubids under the leadership of Saladin reconquered Jerusalem following the siege of 1187, several repairs and renovations were undertaken at al-Aqsa mosque. In order to prepare the mosque for Friday prayers, within a week of his capture of Jerusalem Saladin had the toilets and grain stores installed by the Crusaders at al-Aqsa removed, the floors covered with precious carpets, and its interior scented with rosewater and incense. 27 Saladin's predecessor—the zengid sultan Nur al-Din —had commissioned the construction of a new minbar or "pulpit" made of ivory and wood in 116869, but it was completed after his death; Nur ad-Din's minbar was added to the mosque in november 1187 by saladin. 28 The ayyubid sultan of Damascus, al-mu'azzam, built the northern porch of the mosque with three gates in 1218. In 1345, the mamluks under al-Kamil Shaban added two naves and two gates to the mosque's eastern side. 21 After the Ottomans assumed power in 1517, they did not undertake any major renovations or repairs to the mosque itself, but they did to the noble sanctuary as a whole.

bal shoshan essay

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The central aisle was double the width of the other aisles and had a large gable roof upon which the dome—made of wood—was constructed. 18 Persian geographer, nasir Khusraw describes the Aqsa mosque during a visit in 1047: The haram Area (Noble sanctuary) lies in the eastern part of the city ; and through the bazaar of this (quarter) you enter the Area by a great and beautiful gateway. After passing this gateway, you have on the right two great colonnades ( Riwaq each of which has nine-and-twenty marble pillars, whose capitals and bases are of colored marbles, and the joints are set in lead. Above the pillars rise arches, essay that are constructed, of masonry, without mortar or cement, and each arch is constructed of no more than five or six blocks of stone. These colonnades lead down to near the maqsurah (enclosure). 24 Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders in 1099, during the first Crusade. They named the mosque "Solomon's Temple distinguishing it from the dome of the rock, which they named Templum Domini (Temple of God). While the dome of the rock was turned into a christian church under the care of the augustinians, 25 the al-Aqsa mosque was used as a royal palace and also as a stable for horses.

bal shoshan essay

Sermon on the, mount

A second earthquake damaged most of al-Mansur's repairs, excluding essay those made in the southern portion in 774. 19 21 In 780, his successor Muhammad al-Mahdi had it rebuilt, but curtailed its length and increased its breadth. 19 22 Al-Mahdi's renovation is the first known to have written records describing. 23 In 985, jerusalem-born Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi recorded that the renovated mosque had "fifteen naves and fifteen gates". 21 The doors of the saladin Minbar, early 1900s. The minbar was built on Nur al-Din 's orders, but installed by saladin In 1033, there was another earthquake, severely damaging the mosque. The fatimid caliph Ali az-zahir rebuilt and completely renovated the mosque between 10The number of naves was drastically reduced from 15 to seven. 21 az-zahir built the four arcades of the central hall and aisle, which presently serve as the foundation of the mosque.

20 In contrast, Creswell, while referring to the Aphrodito papyri, claims that Abd al-Malik's son, al-Walid i, reconstructed the Aqsa mosque over a period of six months to a year, using workers from Damascus. Most scholars agree that the mosque's reconstruction was started by Abd al-Malik, but that al-Walid oversaw its completion. In 71314, a series of earthquakes ravaged Jerusalem, destroying the eastern section of the mosque, which was subsequently rebuilt during al-Walid's rule. In order to finance its reconstruction, al-Walid had gold from the dome of the rock minted to use as money to purchase the material. 18 The Umayyad-built al-Aqsa mosque most likely measured 112 x 39 meters. 20 Earthquakes and reconstructions In 746, the al-Aqsa mosque was damaged in an earthquake, four years before as-Saffah overthrew the Umayyads and established the Abbasid Caliphate. The second Abbasid caliph Abu ja'far al-Mansur declared his intent to repair the mosque in 753, and he had the gold and silver plaques that covered the gates of the mosque removed and turned into dinars and dirhams to finance the reconstruction which ended.

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bal shoshan essay

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Creswell, referring to a testimony by Arculf, a gallic monk, during his pilgrimage to palestine in 67982, notes the shaw possibility that the droit second caliph of the rashidun Caliphate, umar ibn al-Khattab, erected a primitive quadrangular building for a capacity of 3,000 worshipers somewhere on the. However, Arculf visited Palestine during the reign of mu'awiyah i, and it is possible that mu'awiyah ordered the construction, not Umar. This latter claim is explicitly supported by the early muslim scholar al-Muthahhar bin Tahir. 18 According to several Muslim scholars, including Mujir ad-Din, al-suyuti, and al-Muqaddasi, the mosque was reconstructed and expanded by the caliph Abd al-Malik in 690 along with the dome of the rock. 18 19 guy le Strange claims that Abd al-Malik used materials from the destroyed Church of Our Lady to build the mosque and points to possible evidence that substructures on the southeast corners of the mosque are remains of the church. 19 In planning his magnificent project on the temple mount, which in effect would turn the entire complex into the haram al-Sharif the noble sanctuary abd al-Malik wanted to replace the slipshod structure described by Arculf with a more sheltered structure enclosing the qibla direction. However, the entire haram al-Sharif was meant to represent a mosque.

How much he modified the aspect of the earlier building is unknown, but the length of the new building is indicated by the existence of traces of a bridge leading from the Umayyad palace just south of the western part of the complex. The bridge would have spanned the street running just outside the southern wall of the haram al-Sharif to give direct access to the mosque. Direct access from palace to mosque was a well-known feature in the Umayyad period, as evidenced at various early sites. Abd al-Malik shifted the central axis of the mosque some 40 meters (130 ft) westward, in accord with his overall plan for the haram al-Sharif. The earlier axis is represented in the structure by the niche still known as the "mihrab of 'Umar." In placing emphasis on the dome of the rock, abd al-Malik had his architects align his new al-Aqsa mosque according to the position of the rock, thus.

8 9 History Pre-construction The mosque is located on the temple mount, referred to by muslims today as the "Haram al-Sharif" noble sanctuary an enclosure expanded by king Herod the Great beginning in 20 BCE. 10 The original sanctuary is believed to date to the time of Abraham in Islam. 11 The mosque resides on an artificial platform that is supported by arches constructed by herod's engineers to overcome the difficult topographic conditions resulting from the southward expansion of the enclosure into the tyropoeon and Kidron valleys. 12 At the time of the second Temple, the present site of the mosque was occupied by the royal Stoa, a basilica running the southern wall of the enclosure. 12 The royal Stoa was destroyed along with the temple during the sacking of Jerusalem by the romans in 70 CE. It was once thought that Emperor Justinian 's " nea ekklesia of the Theotokos or the new Church of the god-bearer, dedicated to the god-bearing Virgin Mary, consecrated in 543 and commonly known as the nea church, was situated where al-Aqsa mosque was later constructed.


However, remains identified as those of the nea church were uncovered in the south part of the jewish quarter in 1973. 13 14 Analysis of the wooden beams and panels removed from the mosque during renovations in the 1930s shows they are made from Cedar of Lebanon and cypress. Radiocarbon dating indicates a large range of ages, some as old as 9th-century bce, showing that some of the wood had previously been used in older buildings. 15 In 2012, it was reported that Robert Hamilton, an archaeologist who worked on the temple mount after the 1927 Jericho earthquake, had discovered remains under al-Aqsa mosque that he did not publish in his book on the excavations. These included a mosaic like those used in byzantine churches, and a jewish mikveh from the second Temple period. 16 17 Construction by the Umayyads The mosque along the southern wall of al-Haram al-Sharif The current construction of the al-Aqsa mosque is dated to the early Umayyad period of rule in Palestine.

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As a result the area is highly sensitive, and has been a flashpoint in the IsraeliPalestinian conflict. 2 Contents Etymology Al-Masjid al-Aqsa translates from Arabic into English as "the farthest mosque". The name refers to a chapter of the quran called Al-Isrā ( Arabic : "The night journey in which it is said that Muhammad travelled from Mecca to "the farthest mosque and then up to heaven on a heavenly creature called al-Burāq ash-Sharīf ( Arabic. 3 4 Definition Haram. Al-Aqsa Although in its narrowest sense, the Al-Aqsa indicates the silver-domed mosque on the southern side of the temple mount plaza, the term "Al-Aqsa" has often been used to refer to the entire area, including the mosque, along save with the dome of the rock, the. Al-Masjid al-Aqsa referred evernote not only to the mosque, but to the entire sacred sanctuary, while Al-Jâmi al-Aqṣá ( Arabic : ) referred to the specific site of the mosque. Note 1 During the period of Ottoman rule (c. Early 16th century to 1917) the wider compound began to also be referred to as al-aram ash-Sharīf ( Arabic :, the noble sanctuary 6 7 Al-Qibli. Al-Aqsa Al-Aqsa mosque is also referred to as Al-Qibli mosque on account of a particular building within it, the Al-Qibli Chapel ( al-Jami' al-Aqsa or al-Qibli, or Masjid al-Jumah or al-Mughata ).

bal shoshan essay

Another earthquake destroyed most of al-Aqsa in 1033, but two years later the fatimid caliph Ali az-zahir built another mosque whose outline is preserved in the current structure. The mosaics on the arch at the qibla end of the nave also go back to his time. During the periodic renovations undertaken, the various ruling dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate constructed additions to the mosque and one its precincts, such as its dome, facade, its minbar, minarets and the interior structure. When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099, they used the mosque as a palace and the dome of the rock as a church, but its function as a mosque was restored after its recapture by saladin in 1187. More renovations, repairs and additions were undertaken in the later centuries by the ayyubids, mamluks, ottomans, the supreme muslim council, and Jordan. Today, the Old City is under Israeli control, but the mosque remains under the administration of the jordanian/Palestinian-led Islamic Waqf. The mosque is located in close proximity to historical sites significant in Judaism and Christianity, most notably the site of the second Temple, the holiest site in Judaism.

month after his migration from Mecca to medina, when, allāh directed him to turn towards the. The covered mosque building was originally a small prayer house erected. Umar, the second caliph of the. Rashidun, caliphate, but was rebuilt and expanded by the. Umayyad caliph, abd al-Malik and finished by his son al-Walid in 705. The mosque was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 746 and rebuilt by the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur in 754. It was rebuilt again in 780.

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bal shoshan essay
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